Avoiding Social Engineering and Phishing Attacks 
What is a social engineering attack? 
In a social engineering attack, an attacker uses human interaction (social skills) to obtain or compromise information about an 
organization or its computer systems. An attacker may seem unassuming and respectable, possibly claiming to be a new employee, repair 
person, or researcher and even offering credentials to support that identity. However, by asking questions, he or she may be able to piece 
together enough information to infiltrate an organization's network. If an attacker is not able to gather enough information from one 
source, he or she may contact another source within the same organization and rely on the information from the first source to add to his 
or her credibility. 
What is a phishing attack? 
    Phishing is a form of social engineering. Phishing attacks use email or malicious websites to solicit personal information by posing as a 
    trustworthy organization. For example, an attacker may send email seemingly from a reputable credit card company or financial 
    institution that requests account information, often suggesting that there is a problem. When users respond with the requested      information,  attackers can use it to gain access to the accounts. 
   Phishing attacks may also appear to come from other types of organizations, such as charities. Attackers often take advantage of current 
   events and certain times of the year, such as 
 natural disasters (e.g., Hurricane Katrina, Indonesian tsunami) 
 epidemics and health scares (e.g., H1N1) 
 economic concerns (e.g., IRS scams) 
 major political elections 
 holidays 
How do you avoid being a victim? 
 Be suspicious of unsolicited phone calls, visits, or email messages from individuals asking about employees or other internal 
     information. If an unknown individual claims to be from a legitimate organization, try to verify his or her identity directly with 
     the company. 
 Do not provide personal information or information about your organization, including its structure or networks, unless you are 
     certain of a person's authority to have the information. 
 Do not reveal personal or financial information in email, and do not respond to email solicitations for this information. This 
     includes following links sent in email. 
 Don't send sensitive information over the Internet before checking a website's security. 
 Pay attention to the URL of a website. Malicious websites may look identical to a legitimate site, but the URL may use a 
     variation in spelling or a different domain (e.g., .com vs. .net). 
 If you are unsure whether an email request is legitimate, try to verify it by contacting the company directly. Do not use contact 
     information provided on a website connected to the request; instead, check previous statements for contact information. 
     Information about known phishing attacks is also available online from groups such as the Anti-Phishing Working Group 
 Install and maintain anti-virus software, firewalls, and email filters to reduce some of this traffic. 
 Take advantage of any anti-phishing features offered by your email client and web browser. 
What do you do if you think you are a victim? 
 If you believe you might have revealed sensitive information about your organization, report it to the appropriate people within 
     the organization, including network administrators. They can be alert for any suspicious or unusual activity. 
 If you believe your financial accounts may be compromised, contact your financial institution immediately and close any 
     accounts that may have been compromised. Watch for any unexplainable charges to your account. 
 Immediately change any passwords you might have revealed. If you used the same password for multiple resources, make sure to 
     change it for each account, and do not use that password in the future. 
 Watch for other signs of identity theft . 
 Consider reporting the attack to the police, and file a report with the Federal Trade Commission (http://www.ftc.gov/). 
     Protecting Your Plastic from High-Tech Criminals  

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